Human Development Indicators

Part 1. The first part of this paper will analyze the human development indicators for Australia. They are following: 1) Life expectancy at birth – 81, 9 years (male: 79.48 years, female: 84.45 years; country comparison to the world: 9 (2012 est.)); 2) Adult literacy rate – 99% (age 15 and over can read and write); 3) GDP per capita – $ 40, 800 (2011 est.) (Country comparison to the world: 21); 4) Birth rate – 12.28 births/1,000 population (2012 est.) (Country comparison to the world: 161); 5) Death rate – 6.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.) (Country comparison to the world: 133). As follows from the statistics, Australia is a highly developed country, because it has the second-highest human development index; the unemployment rate is only 5.1% (2011 est.); it has the world’s fifth-highest per capita income; the quality of life, health, and education is also very high.

Part 2. Globalization – is it a success or a crash? There are different points of view. Some of them are represented in the articles Globalization Brings South Africa Gains— and Pains and The Case for Taxing Globalization’s BigWinners by David Wessel. According to these articles, there are the winners and the losers of reduced trade barriers. In South Africa, the winners are banks, big money-management industries, consumers abroad and producers, who go into the export trade business. Thereafter, the common low-skilled and not educated African people are missing the mark – they are the losers. If South Africa wants to reduce trade barriers, a number of changes should be done. The most important things are: to ameliorate standards of education, to educate its inhabitants and to provide them with work-places. At this rate, the life quality inside the country will improve gradually and the national income will stay inland.

Another article contains the argument to tax the rich more heavily. On one hand, people with low incomes will keep their money and spend them, respectively. Hence, the threat of deficit may appear. On the other hand, if rich people have to pay more taxes, they will go to the other country with all their savings – it will be a big minus for the country.

The statement “Using the tax code to slice the apple more evenly is far more palatable than trying to hold back globalization with policies that risk shrinking the economic apple” (Wessel) can be evaluated differently. Most population will get very small parts of the apple and those who have (bankers, investors, administration…) will get even more. A middle ground should be found – the prosperity of nation will bring the wealth of the country.

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