1. To justify slavery, many southern slave owners said that black people had never created any civilization. Comment on this.
A civilization is used to name some society that has its own culture and towns, cities, ability to govern and to have interactions with other civilizations.
When southern owners said that black people had never created any civilization they had a belief that slaves were people born to obey, they had no culture and motherland. A civilization, where black people would have right to live as white people did, was something unreal, as slaves had no opportunity to display their mind and talents. So who could dwell on these people as a culture? Not many knew that “black people” had roots in Africa, which had been motherland to various civilizations throughout history. For Americans Africa was a slave market.
That is why in order to answer this question, it is obvious to remember the fact that slave owners had never heard of African civilizations because slave’s civilization was ignored and did not fit the historical books to be mentioned there. In early opinion, a civilization had to present stable community with world-admitted culture and ability to conquer or to defend. African continent was a cherry on the cake for Britain, France and other countries. It was profitably not to acknowledge black people’s civilization because the goal was to conquer, govern, and bind black race. They just did not want to hear about Africa, because slave owners had chosen to ignore it, people were racists.
2. If people in the ancient world did not think in terms of “black” and “white” as we do today, then why is the racial identity of the ancient Egyptians such a hot topic today?
Racial identity of the ancient Egyptians is a widely discussed question today because it touches the problem of which racial background African Americans most identify with. Black people today try to prove to the society that they can relate to the best. Egyptian civilizaton was great and its culture had remarkable persuade on the later cultures of Africa and Europe. Therefore, some scientists think, that black people insist on the fact that ancient Egyptians were black in order to underline their better to other civilizations. Opponents say that black people if truth be told need is a functional present, not a glorious past.” (Clarence E. Walker). This means that nothing significant has happened in black times past since the pharaohs’ century and thus easies the history of black Americans.
Moreover, the right to belong to Egyptians roots in any way advances the status of black people who throughout of the earlier history had to fight for their cultural and ethnical identity.
3. Why is it so important in our understanding of African American history to know that the first human beings evolved on the African continent?
Nowadays it is a well-known fact that the first man originated from the African continent. Scientists have known that roots in Africa are closely connected with tribes from the South African-Namibian land. These people are considered one of the most ancient populations on the Earth.
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All other groups of Africans originated from this culture and scientist even believe that when these people left Africa they populated all over the world. Today most people even do not know that have their genes. Just about ¾ of African-Americans mark out their origin to Western Africa.
The tests exposed African Americans had all descended from just 14 inherited populations and their native languages were closely connected with the similarity of their genes.
Therefore, in African American history it is very purposeful to know these facts for correct understanding that this people had even more important origin, which changed the face of the world. Black people have difficult history of slavery but they always had a land where their civilization was born.
Psychology: 4. Which is a more important determinant off who we are- nature, which encompasses our genetic inheritance, or nurture, which speaks to all of the environmental influences to which we are exposed.
If we talk about a definition “who we are” the first thing we have to pay attention to is our social and personal place. According to our being a participant of a society such factors as the kind of parenting we receive as well as the family structure we grow up in, the kinds of school system we are exposed, our working position and attitude we receive among outer world are significant. Therefore, here nurture determination of who we are prevails.
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If we speak about our personal, believe of who we are such factors as the inner values play the most significant role. These values can be different for different people. Some are proud of their family origin, other try not to mention about this. Social status is common to most people. It can be either of high or low level but some day we can change the situation and choose the way we want to live. Our nature is something that was given to us from out birth and it cannot be changed. Either white or black people can get a good education, be a good or bad member of the society. Therefore, this factor is changeable and cannot influence on who we are, while our genetic inheritance predetermines our character, some personal bents for being a person.
As I believe nature inheritance is more important as nurture. We know many examples of famous people who had no good education but due to their nature created talented things, (here we can mention Michael Faraday changed the world because of his research of electricity, but had no special education, William Herschel – discovered space). Moreover, there are many good people from not excellent families; on the opposite, there are children from respectable families who are criminals. So who we are depends on what do we have in our mind. This depends on ourselves and everything that surrounds us can strengthen the particular features of our personality. We have to be proud of our origin and always be the treasure of the family.
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