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A History: The Construction of Race and Racism

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This essay will attempt to make elaborate the article of David Rogers and Moira Bowman “A History: The Construction of Race and Racism” the article showed in clear representation the background as well as classification and structure of races. The study showed the differentiation of race and the upsurge of racism which was justified by religion and science. The conflicts arising from racism has remained one of the major disturbing issues in the United States which erupts through prejudice and an imbalance in the distribution of economic resources.  Furthermore, this study will show areas discrimination; power and differentiation exist in the United States being the focal point of this study. Racism has evolved over time regardless of the imbalance that existed in time past and now. Thus, this article will clearly depict the perks or and negative fallouts personally perceived as a result of Racism.

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Rogers and Bowman in their article noted civilization to exist as a result of a group of people coexisting and sharing the same family tree. Complexity arises as the influx people coming into a country are high and rising; the United States poses a clear illustration on this truth. They are Italians, Mexicans and Chinese having their nationalities in the United States as a result of migration and conformity but each having unconnected cultures and backgrounds. The study overview showed a classification of races by geographic areas (Mongoloid and Caucazoid) and color (Negroid). Race which further led to racism was established to differentiate and give dominance to whites on non –whites. It developed into other forms of inclusion or exclusion  like difference in sexes where men are preferred in certain job positions and women were not; it included discrimination based on inability to access wealth by an unselected majority having to face challenges in accessing quality education and other basic amenities or discrimination on differences an individual may not have power over like sexuality.

The medieval era was characterized with several justifications for racism; according to Rogers and Bowman, most religions regarded Asians and Blacks as non-humans and thus slavery was ordained by God, these slaves were brutally made to do their masters bidding but as time evolved some religions recognized Blacks and Asians as humans with souls and as more of them were converted to Christianity, the religious excuse for slavery was beoming unrealistic and irrelevant by the day. Based on a quest for an improved economy and reason for exploitation more Africans, Asians, Australians and the South Pacific were increasingly being colonized and exploited; as a result most of these nations were becoming extinct and an  ignorance of medicine; they became exposed to ailments. The evolution of Charles Darwin’s theory which developed into “Social Darwinism” was developed to pose these races as weaker races and for the stronger races to live, the weaker races has to be devoured by the strong.

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The 21st century has evolved from the medial forms of racism and discrimination and a rather absurd form now currently exist. An article by Ronald E. Hall on the “Manifestations of Racism in the 21st century” showed that prior to the construct in race in the medieval times scientists have argued that racism sprouted from these constructs. The study showed that privileges and opportunities eluded individuals with color; this caused the light skinned Americans to assume identity so as to benefit from these privileges. Other cases as posed in the study included stigmatization of colored people. The economic boost of the United States has been a from the contribution of Africans, European and Asians these prosperity has not been segmented to favor these classes of people nationalized in the United States by assimilation and they have had their aspirations for quality life slashed by these subjugations.

Lauretta Iberiyenari wrote an article on “Gender Discrimination in the Workplace: Are Women Sufficiently Protected?” explains that undue discrimination as a result of the placement of an individual in one category or the other making the individual feel worse off than  another based on very illogical reasons has been on the rise. Women have been termed weaklings after child birth and placed below the males and most times preferred in certain jobs than females. Gender discrimination has been shunned by the United State government because all form of prejudice resulting from difference in gender has been termed as unlawful. This has become a worldwide trend as women have little or no opportunity in accessing education, training and privileges. As a result of this in 1995 a United State government funded organization awarded an increased percentage of master’s degree to women but yet the level of unemployed women in industrial and company services is sttill on the low. These forms of gender discrimination passes exists in various forms and they include all forms of sexual harassment, women told to resign from their jobs and replaced by men due to marriage or child birth without a similar regulation on men, The inability of women to aspire for specific positions in power like the government and other ruling bodies in varying organizations also poses as huge discrimination and prejudice.

Another form is discrimination against sexual orientation; this poses an infringement on the human right of an individual were individuals are stigmatized in gaining employment, housing, businesses, and public privileges as a result of their sexual bearing, which has absolutely nothing to do with the productivity of an individual. The use of religious beliefs has been the start point of racism in the world today it should not be used to justify discrimination of individuals based on the sexual orientation. According to M.V. Lee Badgett (2012) in an article “The Impact of Extending Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Non-Discrimination Requirements to Federal Contractors” showed that over 4% of the work force in the United States are LGBT; it only brings adequate work performance to ensure that they are instituted policies that protect these individuals against all forms of discrimination. Further studies in the study showed that an organization with these laid down policies as well as the employees are termed to have an increase in productivity.

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In conclusion, all forms of discrimination adversely affect the core values of a free society and have a boomerang effect on the world at large. I have come to believe that regardless of our race, culture or skin colour;  we are all one and our genetic composition do not indicate superiority, subordination or a call for any form of  subjugation. The practice of democracy in the United States has giving me a positive relief because racism has been addressed by the unanimous election of a colored President to the Whitehouse and to prove it was no fluke; the president was re-elected to run the nation for a second term.  Though it will be completely impossible to eradicate all forms of racism or discrimination among classes in the varying social structures, it brings great relief that skin color is no longer a prerequisite for achieving dreams and fulfilling life’s purposes and thus acts as a pedestal for an improved nondiscriminatory society in the future.

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